AGARWOOD CRASSNA – THE SPECIAL AQUILARIA TREE IN ASIA
Agarwood crassna database
Aquilaria crassna Pierre is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae family. It is found in throughout Southeast Asia and in New Guinea
Scientific Name: Aquilaria crassna
Species Authority: Pierre ex Lecomte
History of Agarwood crassna :
Starting in 1580 after Nguyễn Hoàng took control over the central provinces of modern Vietnam, the Nguyen rule encouraged trade with other countries in Asia, specifically China and Japan. Agarwood was exported in three different name: Calambac (kỳ nam in Vietnamese), trầm hương (very similar but slightly harder and slightly more abundant), and agarwood proper. A pound of Calambac bought in Hội An for 15 taels could be sold in Nagasaki for 600 taels. A Royal Monopoly over the sale of Agarwood has been established by The Nguyễn Lords. This monopoly helped fund the Nguyễn state finances during the early years of the Nguyen rule.
Description of Agarwood crassna
Aquilaria trees are big trees, evergreen trees, that grows to 30 m tall, trunk diameter from 0.6 to 0.8 m. The color of bark is gray-brown, cracks along the rolling, can be easily removed and stripped down from the root up. The trunk grow crooked, sparse canopy. Leaves ovate oblong or oval, length 5 – 11cm wide by 3 – 9cm, the green on surface, paler in the lower surface and finely hairy, immaculate leaf edges.
In the spring, Aquilaria crassna has small pale yellow flowers , grow in clusters at the branch umbel or leaf axils. The calyx of the flower is bell-shaped, with 5 lobes have shallow. Capsule is reverse ovoid or look like the pear, 4cm long, 3cm diameter, when dry, covered with soft hairs short, yellow-gray.
Biology of Agarwood crassna
The Agarwood crassna blossoming in April, the fruit is ripening in the July. Barely do not see the mother plant under the canopy of the jungle, it is usually only see in light or edges forest.
The Agarwood crassna like the typical Feralit soil or feralit grow on rocky mountain, or granite, medium soils or thin soils, moisture, pH = 4-6. In a rich humus soil, or enriched in advance, moisture, but do not put Aquilaria crassna feet in the water
Distribution of Agarwood crassna
In Vietnam: The Aquilaria tree has seen from Tuyen Quang, Thanh Hoa . Nghe An, Ha Tinh to Kien Giang (Phu Quoc Island), which in the coastal provinces from Quang Binh to Binh Thuan has more.
In the World: Laos, Cambodia.
At the present time, the individuals of mature frankincense threatened and Aquilara crassna is on the basis endangered in nature. But the area of agarwood plantation in the country is increasing.
Composition of Aquilaria (agarwood) crassna
Aquilaria trees used for agarwood oil extraction. Pure Agarwood oil is produced from water distilled extraction. Agarwood oil is viscous liquid, warm, sweet woody scent, very long lasting.
The main composition of the agarwood essential oil are: agarofuranoid, sesquiterpenoid of eudesman, eremophilan, valencan and vetispiran
Medicinal virtues of Aquilaria
Aquilaria bark resin mutilated for cosmetics industry are harvested for incense to the subtle scent, Agarwood is a special product to use as incense in Buddhist, Muslims and Hindus religious ceremonies. And for the indigenous pharmacopoeia using them for many virtues to cure stomach aches and some cardiovascular disorder.